This page contains a list of publications and ongoing research projects that draw on or are informed by the PTMF.
To browse a different section of the site please return to the main PTMF hub.
The Power Threat Meaning Framework is a major Division of Clinical Psychology-funded project to outline a conceptual alternative to the diagnostic model of psychological and emotional distress.
The documents present a set of principles, and the DCP Power Threat Meaning Framework Subcommittee has been set up to collate examples of these principles being translated into practice.
The Committee also aims to support research and evaluation into all aspects of the Framework, so that they can feed back into its further development.
Moutsou, I. (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) – A supportive intervention for Unaccompanied Refugee Minors, based on the Power-Threat-Meaning Framework.
The proposed research concerns the development and study of a four-session supportive intervention for unaccompanied refugee and asylum-seeking minors (UAMs), based on the PowerThreat-Meaning Framework (Johnstone & Boyle, 2018), in collaboration with the Greek NGO “Arsis– Association for the Social Support of Youth”.
The research study aims to develop a tool for understanding and supporting UAMs, that can be used in their accommodation facilities as part of routine practice by any social scientist, regardless of her/his specialty or psychotherapeutic training. Furthermore, the study can contribute to the enrichment of the PTMF, through considering its application in understanding the UAMs’ experience and contributing to their empowerment.
For questions, please contact: Irene Moutsou (PhD student) [email protected] orEugenie Georgaca (Associate Professor) [email protected].
Zoe Travers (Cardiff University) - Clinical Psychologists needed for an interview study exploring the experience of using the Power Threat Meaning Framework in UK adult mental health settings.
This doctoral research project is looking to explore psychologists’ experiences of drawing upon the Power Threat Meaning Framework (Johnstone & Boyle, 2018) in their work and is looking to recruit qualified clinical psychologists who have experience of using ideas from the PTMF in a UK adult mental health context, to take part in an interview via zoom. Please see the attached advert for more information.
If you are interested in participating or have any questions, please contact: [email protected]
Dan Warrender (Royal Gordon University - Aberdeen). Dan's PhD topic is 'borderline personality disorder'. The PTMF is being used in this thesis. Research articles use PTMF where the validity of the 'BPD' construct is challenged.
Dan can be contacted at [email protected]
John Cromby (University of Leicester) and colleagues are researching uptake and initial responses to the PTMF among professionals and experts by experience.
John can be contacted at [email protected]
Michelle Glascott (Northumbria University) and colleagues are looking to critically investigate a co-production approach to care organisation and provision (ReCoCo- Tyneside Recovery College; an entirely peer-led recovery college) alongside an evaluation of the efficacy of the PTMF as a means of understanding distress, as experienced by the students attending ReCoCo.
Michelle can be contacted at [email protected]
Nour Hadadj (University of Leicester) is using the PTMF in her research into the effects of trauma and adversity on women refugee's ability to self-organise.
Nour can be contacted on [email protected]
Baker, S., Jackson, M., Jongsma, H., & Saville, C. (2021). The ethnic density effect in psychosis: A systematic review and multilevel meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 219, 632-643.
This article reviews the evidence for the impact of ethnic density on psychosis, and cites the PTMF as a way of 'highlighting the importance of contextualising psychotic experiences in minority groups and considering to what extent these are understandable responses to chronic experiences of discrimination and social exclusion.
Boyle, M., & Johnstone, L. (2020) A straight talking introduction to the Power threat meaning framework: An alternative to psychiatric Diagnosis. PCCS
Cantrell, E, February 2021 (unpublished DClin Thesis). Exploring the interface between Clinical Psychology and the benefits system.
This thesis considers and conceptualises the psychological outcomes of claiming benefits with the PTM Framework.
Castillo, J. M., Smith, I., Morris, L. & Perez-Algorta, G. (2018). Violent incidents in a secure service for individuals with learning disabilities: Incident types, circumstances and staff responses. JARID, 31(6), 1164-1173.
This paper is a secondary analysis of incident reports for adults with intellectual disabilities in a secure hospital setting (NHS, UK). The authors draw upon the PTMF when describing how violence by people with intellectual disabilities and a history of trauma and adversity can be understood as a survival strategy.
Chamberlain, C. et al (2021). Healing the past by nurturing the future: Aboriginal parents'views of what helps support recovery from complex trauma. Indigenous health and well-being: targeted primary health care across the life course. Primary Health Care Research & Development, 22, E47.
Cooke, A., Smythe, W. & Anscombe, P. (2019). Conflict, compromise and collusion: Dilemmas for psychosocially-orientated practitioners in the mental health system. Psychosis, 11(3), 199-211.
This paper reports the results of a study exploring the experiences of UK psychologists who self-identify as critical of the medical model, but who work in services in which the medical-model is the dominant framework. The PTMF is considered within clinical implications as a possible tool for opening up discussion within services about alternative ways of making sense of distress.
Enlander, A, Simonds, L., & Hanna, P. (2021). Using the power threat meaning framework to explore birth parents' expereinces of compulsory child removal. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology.
Using the PTMF this paper provides a qualitative synthesis of literature exploring birth parents experiences who have had a child removed from their care by the state.
Farrell, E., & Mahon, Aine., (2021). Understanding student mental health: Difficulty, deflection and darkness. Ethics and Education.
This paper reports on new ways of conceptualising mental health using the context of young people in higher education in Ireland. The PTMF is included in the discussion of ways in which the experience of distress is captured, described and responded to.
Finlay, C., Patel, S. & Evans, J. Assessing Psychosocial Distress in Cystic Fibrosis: Validation of the ‘Distress in Cystic Fibrosis Scale’. J Clin Psychol Med Settings (2021).
This study considers the distress related to different aspects of CF and the paradigm shift beyond medicalisation and diagnosis in mental health towards a multifactorial and contextual approach.
Llewellyn-Beardsley, J. et al. (2019). Characteristics of mental health recovery narratives: Systematic review and narrative synthesis. PLoS ONE, 14(3).
This systematic review reports the results of the authors’ metasynthesis of published recovery narratives. The authors refer to the PTMF when considering gaps in the recovery literature, observing that published papers have tended to focus on individual narratives when survivor movements and the PTMF have pointed towards the importance of considering collective narratives. The authors cite the Framework as one that gives central place to stories.
Lynch, J. J. (2018). Hell in Connaught: Surviving St Joseph’s Industrial School, Letterfrack. Thesis submitted to Trinity College Dublin.
This thesis reports themes generated from adult survivors of childhood abuse perpetuated within a religious school in Ireland. The Author references the Framework as a useful non-diagnostic approach to making sense of the effects of abuse.
Marshall, J. (2021). Toward a psychology of (un)certainty: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of young people's accounts of receiving a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Open University.
This doctoral thesis refers to the PTMF as one of the perspectives on how young people experience a diagnosis of bipolar disorder.
Paradiso, J., & Quinlan, E. (2021). Mental Health Caregiver's Experiences from the Perspective of the PTMF. Journal of Humanistic Psychology.
A study into the experiences of caregivers in Australia, using the PTM Framework.
Rajendra, K. (2019). Moving towards mental wellness by shifting cultural connectedness: A grounded theory study. Auckland University of Technology thesis.
This thesis was concerned with the process of ‘recovery’ for South Asian people access mental health services within New Zealand. The Framework was cited as fitting with participants’ descriptions of difficult experiences, and ‘how making meaning of the experience shaped people’s feelings of shame, self-blame, isolation, fear, and guilt’ (p.166). The Framework is also described within a review of literature relating to conceptualisations of ‘recovery.’
Reis, M., Dinelli, S. & Elias, L. (2019). Surviving prison: Using the PTMF to explore the impact of long-term imprisonment. Clinical Psychology Forum, 313, 25-32.
This paper reports on the collaborative use of the PTMF in a UK prison setting. As well as reflecting on the experience of the group from the perspective of the participants and facilitators, the paper reports the threats, meanings and threat responses generated by the group of seven male prisoners.
Smith, A. (2018). Understanding the experiences of unaccompanied asylum-seeking young people as they turn eighteen whilst subject to UK immigration control. Leicester DClinPsy thesis.
This thesis reports the results of an analysis of interview data with young adults seeking asylum within the UK. All participants had come to the UK as ‘unaccompanied minors from Afghanistan and the interviews and analysis focussed on their experiences and meaning-making of ‘becoming an adult’ whilst still experiencing various restrictions associated with an uncertain immigration status. The Author reported finding the PTMF to be a good fit with the results of her analysis and the Framework is drawn upon heavily to contextualise results within the Discussion.
Siverns, K. & Morgan, G. (2019). Parenting in the context of historical childhood trauma: An interpretive meta-synthesis. Child Abuse & Neglect, 98,
This systematic literature review involved a metasynthesis of published research concerned with the parenting experiences of parents who had survived childhood abuse. The PTMF was referenced to contextualise a result and clinical implication: That survivor mothers’ ambivalence to support from services should be viewed as understandable in the context of lived experience.
Kate Siverns & Gareth Morgan (2021) ‘If Only I Could Have Said, If Only Somebody Was Listening’: Mothers’ Experiences of Placing Their Child into Care, Adoption Quarterly, 24:3, 207-228
IPA research exploring experiences of mothers with trauma histories who had made or agreed with the decision for their child to be placed in care.
Sivers, S., Wendland, S., Baggley, L., Boyle, K., Popoola, M., Looney, E. (2020) Pupil views on their education in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: A joint report by Southend and Nottingham City Educational Psychology Services. Association of Educational Psychologists.
Nottingham City Educational Psychology Service (EPS) and Southend EPS have collaborated to explore the views of children and young people and how they have found the changes brought about by the Covid-19 pandemic and their thoughts about education, returning to school and what has helped them during this time.
Turri et al (2020). The Systemic Assessment Clinic, a Novel Method for Assessing Patients in General Adult Psychiatry: Presentation and Preliminary Service Evaluation.
The traditional model of psychiatric assessment and diagnosis can be criticised as reductive. We developed an innovative model for psychiatric assessment of adult patients referred to our adult mental health team, the Systemic Assessment Clinic, incorporating the principles and techniques of systemic family therapy and dialogical practice into standard psychiatric assessment.
Whitaker, L., Smith, F., Brasier, C., et al. (2021). Engaging with transformative paradigms in mental health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Healthh, 18(18), 9504.
This article from Australia encourages social workers to engage with transformative, non-medical paradigms in MH, including the PTMF.