This page contains a list of publications and ongoing research projects that draw on or are informed by the PTMF.
To browse a different section of the site please return to the main PTMF hub.
It also includes an update from the project team one year on from publication of the original PTMF document.
The reports on applied uses show that the framework can be highly effective and useful for many people, both in help-providing and help-seeking roles.
Aherne, C., Moloney, O. & O’Brien, G. (2019). Youth mental health and the Power Threat Meaning Framework: Jigsaw’s systems perspective. Clinical Psychology Forum, 313, 3-7.
This article discusses the authors’ perceptions of the fit between the PTMF and the non-medicalised contextual ethos of Jigsaw, a charity providing support to young people experiencing mental health problems in Ireland.
Aherne, C., Moloney, O., O’Donoghue, K., & Horgan, L. (2020). Society's Anxiety. Clinical Psychology Today, 24 June 2020.
There has been a trend of increased levels of anxiety amongst young people in Ireland over the last decade. Reasons given for this trend are often over-simplistic in nature. This article aims to reflect deeper on the context of youth mental health in Ireland and to contribute to the theoretical understanding of this context.
Aherne, D. & Aherne, C. (2020) The Power Threat Meaning Framework and Covid-19. Clinical Psychology Today, 22 June 2020.
Covid-19 has forced many of us into introspection in attempts to figure out what is important to us individually and as a society. Here the authors have used the PTMF as a framework of reflection in an attempt to illuminate some understanding of Ireland’s responses to the illness and some thoughts on how to approach things going forward.
Albanese, A., Blane, D., Williamson, A. (2021). Mental health in context: Structural vulnerability and support in primary care. British Journal of General Practice, 71(713): 565-567
This article discusses how the PTMF and formulation-based approach can help GPs support those whose mental distress is rooted in structural inequalities.
Amari, N (2021) Social justice in counseling psychology practice: Actualizing the ethics of compassion. Journal of Humanistic Psychology.
This article draws on the PTMF and other sources to argue for counselling practice which supports social justice.
Barnwell, G., Stroud, L., & Watson, M. (2020) Critical reflections from South Africa: Using the Power Threat Meaning Framework to place climate-related distress in its socio-political context. Clinical Psychology Forum, 332, August 2020
This paper applies the Power Threat Meaning Framework (PTMF) to a case study on climate-related distress in South Africa. In doing so, the paper critiques the current conceptualisation of climate anxieties for its potential medicalisation and dehistorisation, and illustrates the importance of asymmetrical power dynamics and climate-related distress.
Bostock, J & Armstrong, N. Developing trauma-informed care and adapted pathways using the Power, Threat, Meaning framework (Part 1: Being heard and understood differently)
The British Psychological Society (2020) Understanding Depression
This document is for everyone who has an interest in depression – those of us who experience it, our friends and family, and those of us who provide services to help. It is an up-to-date summary of what the research says, written in everyday language.
Collins, N. (2019). The ‘Own my life’ course: Building literacy with women about trauma through the Power Threat Meaning Framework. Clinical Psychology Forum, 313, 38-41.
The author reflects on the fit between the Framework and her own approach to ‘depathologising’ the responses of women subjected to abuse from male partners.
Dorling, D., Rouf, K. (01 June 2018) To better tackle mental illness, look to the societies in which it occurs. Prospect Magazine.
This article looks at the role which society plays in shaping our attitudes and responses towards mental health.
Flynn, A. & Polak, N. (2019). Incorporating the Power Threat Meaning Framework into an autism and learning disability team. Clinical Psychology Forum, 313, 42-46.
The authors reflect on their experiences of drawing upon the Framework in their work with children, young people and their families in a NHS service for people diagnosed with autism or intellectual disability.
Fyson, R., Morley, K. & Murphy, A. (2019). Using the Power Threat Meaning Framework in social work education. Clinical Psychology Forum, 313, 33-37.
The authors discuss the fit between the Framework and the roles of social workers. The authors describe how the PTMF will be taught and inform other taught content within the English social work training programme they are involved with.
Griffiths, A. (2019). Reflections on using the Power Threat Meaning Framework in peer-led systems. Clinical Psychology Forum, 313, 9-14.
The author describes how a trauma-informed peer-led group adapted and utilised the PTMF within their group. The author provides reflections on the experience including thoughts about the adaptations she felt were necessary and ideas for future development. The author also shares the PTMF narrative she developed for herself during the process of utilising this within the group.
Griffiths, H. & Baty, F. (2019). Bringing the outside in: Clinical psychology training in socially aware assessment, formulation, intervention and service structure. Clinical Psychology Forum, 313, 20-24.
The authors describe how they incorporated a workshop on the PTMF into a module on critical psychology within a Scottish clinical psychology training programme. They reflect on the experience, fit with the ethos and hopes for clinical training, and the positive reception from the trainees.
Harper, D. J. & Cromby, J. (2020) From ‘What’s Wrong with You?’ to ‘What’s Happened to You?’: an Introduction to the Special Issue on the Power Threat Meaning Framework, Journal of Constructivist Psychology.
Hill, P. (2020). Post-pandemic NHS staff wellbeing. Pain News vol.18(3); 155-157.
This article argues that the PTMF can help us take a holistic view of the factors relevant to long-term conditions such as chronic fatigue and chronic pain.
Huggett, C. (2020). What influences mental health professionals to stigmatise people with schizophrenia? The Mental Elf, 13 October 2020
This review established that schizophrenia is one of the most stigmatised mental health problems by mental health professionals. Moreover, the general public and GPs hold more stigmatising beliefs of schizophrenia than mental health professionals.
Johnstone, L., Boyle, M., Cromby, J. et al. (2019). Reflections on responses to the Power Threat Meaning Framework one year on. Clinical Psychology Forum, 313, 47-54.
The authors of the Framework reflect on reactions to the launch of the Framework, clarify points that were commonly mis-reported, and suggest ideas for future development.
Kokorikou, D., et al., (2021). Testing hypotheses about the harm that capitalism causes to the mind and brain: a theoretical framework for neuroscience research.
This article cites the PTMF, among other sources, in arguing that neuroscience needs to account for and investigate the impact of capitalism on the mind and brain.
Mitchell, S. & Thorne, E. Developing trauma-informed care and adapted pathways using the Power Threat Meaning framework (Part 2: Being helped differently)
O’Toole, C. (2019). Time to teach the politics of mental health: Implications of the Power Threat Meaning Framework for teacher education. Clinical Psychology Forum, 313, 15-19.
The author, a lecturer in education psychology in Ireland, discusses how she believes the Framework has radical implications for how teachers can support wellbeing in schools and other educational settings.
Polak. N., & Flynn, A. (2019). Incorporating the PTMF into an autism and learning disability team. Clinical Psychology Forum 313 - January 2019.
Phillips, G., & Raskin, J. D. (2020). A primer for clinicians on alternatives to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. Advance online publication.
Various researchers have been developing alternatives to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition; DSM–5). This article serves as a “primer” for clinicians by introducing four alternatives to the DSM–5 that are currently garnering significant attention.
Read, J., and Harper, D. (2020). The power threat meaning framework: addressing adversity, challenging prejudice and stigma and transforming services. Journal of Constructivist Psychology.
Advocates of a biomedical approach have argued that: it provides an evidence-based approach to classifying and understanding the causes of problems; adopting a biomedical understanding will reduce stigma; and biomedical interventions are effective and evidence-based. This article reviews the literature and finds not only that there is little or no evidence for these assumptions but that, in fact, the research evidence points to the need for the kind of alternative approach proposed by the PTMF.
Siverns, K. & Morgan, G. (2021) ‘If Only I Could Have Said, If Only Somebody Was Listening’: Mothers’ Experiences of Placing Their Child into Care. Adoption Quarterly.
Stupak R, Dobroczyński B. From Mental Health Industry to Humane Care. Suggestions for an Alternative Systemic Approach to Distress. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6625.
These authors cite the PTMF as an example of how mental health services in Poland could be radically reformed.
TFDA Open letter regarding reform and revision of diagnostic systems
This letter was constructed by the Task Force on Diagnostic Alternatives of the Society for Humanistic Psychology (Division 32 of the American Psychological Association [APA]).
Topor, A., and Matscheck, D. (2021) Diversity, Complexity and Ordinality: Mental Health Services outside the institutions-Service users' and professionals' experience-based practices and knowledges, and new public management. International Jounral of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(13): 7075.
This article cites the PTMF in describing community mental health support in Sweden.
Webb, Nick 17 February 2018) My mother took her own life – and now I know a different mental health approach could have saved her. The Independent.
This article discusses the author's own experience with mental health and the loss of a loved one, and the role which the PTMF can play in helping others in the future.
Warrender, D., Bain, H., Murray, I., & Kennedy, C. (2020). Pespectives of crisis intervention for people diagnosed with 'borderline personality disorder': An integrative review. Jornal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 1, 1-29.
This paper explores the experiences of stakeholders involved in the crisis care of people diagnosed with “Borderline Personality Disorder.”